The original city center of Cairo dates back to the 10th century, when the Fatimids founded a new capital, the location of which is roughly equivalent to present-day Islamic Cairo . It would seem that the first settlements in the area were some centuries before the Islamic conquest of Egypt , dated to 641 AD
Even the oldest buildings in Cairo date back to a couple of centuries BC, or, to be exact, to the Greco-Roman period. At the edge of the city are the Pyramids of Giza , one of the oldest splendid monuments in the history of mankind.
Despite the proximity to the city of Cairo, the difference in historical age between the pyramids and the same are proof of how little they have to do with each other.
The pyramids of Giza and the desert areas adjacent to Cairo are part of the legacy of an older city that fell into decline and became of little importance to most, when Cairo reached its moment of maximum splendor, this city was identified in Memphis. Memphis in ancient Egypt was the seat of power of the Old Kingdom (2686 – 2181 BC), home of the pharaohs who built the pyramids.
In fact, most of these architectural structures found around Cairo, well over a hundred, were built in this period, when Memphis was the most powerful city in all of Egypt.
The ancient capital of Ineb-hedj, this is the first name of Lower Egypt, still has its ruins near the city of Mit Rahina, 20 km south of Giza. It is believed that the city was founded by Pharaoh Menes. It occupied a strategic position at the mouth of the Nile Delta and was the site of lively activity.
Its main port, Peru-Nefer, featured a high density of workshops, factories and warehouses that distributed food and goods throughout the ancient kingdom. During its heyday, it thrived as a regional center for commerce and religion.
we organize a classic Egypt tour to visit the most famous historical cities in Egypt and also the most popular attractions that tell the glory of our pharaohs such as the Egyptian pyramids and the sphinx and the Egyptian museum and the Khan El Khalili market .
Memphis was believed to be under the protection of the god Ptah, the patron saint of craftsmen. His great temple, Hut-ka-Ptah, was one of the most important structures in the city. The name of this temple, rendered in Greek as Ai-gy-ptos by the historian Manetho, is believed to be the etymological origin of the modern name of the village.
The location of Memphis Egypt, so close to Cairo, is evidence of its historical importance. Both cities were located on the Nile delta, where the river's current slowed and fanned out before flowing into the Mediterranean Sea.
From its strategic position, all the rulers of Egypt starting from the third millennium were able to exercise their power both from Upper Egypt towards the south and towards Lower Egypt north of the delta. The ruins of the capital of the ancient kingdom are located 25 km south of Cairo on the west side of the Nile.
It is believed that the site is around 5000 years old, and that it is extremely small compared to the original city, but it still boasts a vast heritage of finds, a large number of which were recently discovered. The statue of Ramesses II is by far the most spectacular of all the testimonies found here, about ten meters high.
Ramesses II ruled the ancient Thebes, or the current Luxor, in the 13th century BC, by which time the golden age had given way to a progressive decline; however, the impressive size of the find reveals that the city had nonetheless maintained its importance until 1500, following the completion of the pyramids of Giza.
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